**Associate Profressor, Department of Special Education**

Audrey Rogers Myers Centennial Professorship in Education

**Phone:**+1 512 475 6556

**Email:**srpowell@utexas.edu

**Office:**SZB 5.804D

View Curriculum Vitae (pdf)

Audrey Rogers Myers Centennial Professorship in Education

View Curriculum Vitae (pdf)

Sarah R. Powell is an Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education at The University of Texas at Austin and Associate Director of the Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. Her research, teaching, and service focus on mathematics, particularly for students who experience mathematics differently.

Powell is currently Principal Investigator (PI) of an Institute of Education Sciences (IES) efficacy grant (RAAMPS) related to word-problem solving at Grade 4. Powell is also PI of SPIRAL, an IES grant which works collaboratively with Grade 4 and 5 teachers who provide mathematics instruction to students with mathematics difficulty. Powell is Co-PI of STAIR 2.0 (funded by IES) in which the team works with middle school special education math teachers and SCALE (funded by the US Department of Education) in which the team is replicating a fraction intervention in Grades 4-8. Powell collaborates on TIER, a project funded by the Texas Education Agency, as well as Young Academic Music and Our Mathematical World. Powell was awarded the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) in 2019.

Powell understands these efforts are a team effort, and she thanks her project leads, graduate students, research assistants, and research participants.

**Ph.D.**, Vanderbilt University

**M.S.Ed.**, Vanderbilt University

**B.A.**, Centre College

Develops and tests interventions for students with mathematics difficulties, emphasizing word-problem solving, mathematics writing, data-based decision making, and the vocabulary within math.

**Associate Editor, **Journal of Learning Disabilities(2017 - Present)

**Editorial Review Board, **Journal of Learning Disabilities(2014)

**Editorial Review Board, **Teaching Exceptional Children(2014)

**Associate Editor, **Assessment for Effective Intervention(2013 - 2016)

**Editorial Review Board, **Learning Disabilities Research and Practice(2013)

**Editorial Review Board, **Learning Disability Quarterly(2013)

Powell, S. R., Urrutia, V. Y., Berry, K. A. & Barnes, M. A. (2022). The word-problem solving and explanations of students experiencing mathematics difficulty: A comparison based on dual-language status. *Learning Disability Quarterly*, *45*(1), 6–18. doi:10.1177/0731948720922198.

Powell, S. R., Namkung, J. M. & Lin, X. (2022). An investigation of using keywords to solve word problems. *The Elementary School Journal*, *122*(3), 452–473. doi:10.1086/717888.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A., Fall, A.-M., Roberts, G., Barnes, M. A., Fuchs, L. S., Martinez-Lincoln, A., Forsyth, S. R., Vinsonhaler, R. K., Benz, S. A., Zaparolli, D. & Lin, X. (2022). Does word-problem performance maintain? Follow-up one year after implementation of a word-problem intervention. *Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness*, *15*(1), 52–77. doi:10.1080/19345747.2021.1961332.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A., Acunto, A. N., Fall, A.-M. & Roberts, G. (2022). Applying an individual word-problem intervention to a small-group setting: A pilot studys evidence of improved word-problem performance for students experiencing mathematics difficulty. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *55*(5), 359–374. doi:10.1177/00222194211047635.

Powell, S. R., Benz, S. A., Mason, E. N. & Lembke, E. S. (2022). How to structure and intensify mathematics intervention. *Beyond Behavior*, *31*(5), 5–15. doi:10.1177/10742956211072267.

Lin, X. & Powell, S. R. (2022). The roles of initial mathematics, reading, and cognitive skills in subsequent mathematics performance: A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. *Review of Educational Research*, *92*(2), 288–325. doi:10.3102/00346543211054576.

Arsenault, T. L. & Powell, S. R. (2022). Word-problem performance differences by schema: An analysis of students with and without mathematics difficulty. *Learning Disabilities Research and Practice*, *37*(1), 37–50. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12273.

Blumenthal, Y., Blumenthal, S., Lembke, E. S., Powell, S. R., Schutze-Petzold, P. & Thomas, E. R. (2021). Educator perspectives on data-based decision making in Germany and the United States. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *54*(4), 284–299. doi:10.1177/0022219420986120.

Lin, X. & Powell, S. R. (2021). Examining the relation between whole-number and fractions: A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. *Contemporary Educational Psychology*, *67*, 102017. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2021.102017.

Powell, S. R. & Nelson, G. (2021). University students misconceptions about rational numbers: Implications for developmental mathematics and instruction of younger students. *Psychology in the Schools*, *58*(2), 307–331. doi:10.1002/pits.22448.

Unal, Z. E., Powell, S. R., Ozel, S., Scofield, J. E. & Geary, D. C. (2021). Mathematics vocabulary differentially predicts mathematics achievement in eighth grade higher- versus lower-achieving students: Comparisons across two countries. *Learning and Individual Differences*, *92*, 102061. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2021.102061.

Lin, X. & Powell, S.R. (2021). Examining the relation between whole-number and fractions: A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. *Contemporary Educational Psychology*, *67*, 102017. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2021.102017.

Benz, S. A. & Powell, S. R. (2021). The influence of behavior on performance within a word-problem intervention for students with mathematics difficulty. *Remedial and Special Education*, *42*(3), 182–192. doi:10.1177/0741932520923063.

Nurnberger-Haag, J., Alexander, A. N. & Powell, S. R. (2021). What counts in number books? A content-domain specific typology to evaluate childrens books for mathematics. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning*, *23*(2), 145–169. doi:10.1080/109860652020.1777365.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A., Fall, A.-M., Roberts, G., Fuchs, L. S. & Barnes, M. A. (2021). Alternative paths to improved word-problem performance: An advantage for embedding pre-algebraic reasoning instruction within word-problem intervention. *Journal of Educational Psychology*, *113*(5), 145–169. doi:10.1037/edu0000513.

Powell, S. R., Hebert, M. A. & Hughes, E. M. (2021). How educators use mathematics writing in the classroom: A national survey of mathematics educators. *Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal*, *34*(2), 417–447. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-020-10076-8.

Powell, S. R., Lembke, E., Ketterlin-Geller, L., Petscher, Y., Hwang, J., Bos, S. E., Cix, T., Hirt, S., Mason, E. N., Pruitt-Britton, T., Thomas, E. & Tipton, S. (2021). Data-based individualization in mathematics to support middle-school teachers and their students with mathematics learning difficulty. *Studies in Educational Evaluation*, *69*, 100897. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100897.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A. & Benz, S. A. (2020). Analyzing the word-problem performance and strategies of students experiencing mathematics difficulty. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior*. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2020.100759.

Powell, S. R., Urrutia, V. Y., Berry, K. A. & Barnes, M. A. (2020). The word-problem solving and explanations of students experiencing mathematics difficulty: A comparison based on dual-language status. *Learning Disability Quarterly*. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948720922198.

Fuchs, L. S., Powell, S. R., Fall, A.-M., Roberts, G., Cirino, P., Fuchs, D. & Gilbert, J. K. (2020). Do the processes engaged during mathematical word-problem solving differ along the distribution of word-problem competence?. *Contemporary Educational Psychology*, *60*(101811), 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.101811.

Hughes, E. M., Powell, S. R. & Lee, J.-Y. (2020). Development and psychometric report of a middle school mathematics vocabulary measure. *Assessment for Effective Intervention*, *45*(3), 226–234. doi:10.1177/1534508418820116.

Martinez-Lincoln, A., Tran, L. M. & Powell, S. R. (2020). What the hands tell us about mathematical learning: A synthesis of gesture use in mathematics instruction. *Gesture*, *17*(3), 374–415. doi:https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.17014.mar.

Namkung, J. M., Hebert, M. A., Powell, S. R., Hoins, M., Bricko, N. & Torchia, M. (2020). Comparing and validating four methods for scoring mathematics writing. *Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties*, *36*(2), 157–175. doi:10.1080/10573569.2019.1700858.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A. & Barnes, M. A. (2020). The role of pre-algebraic reasoning with a word-problem intervention for third-grade students with mathematics difficulty. *ZDM Mathematics Education*, *52*(1), 151–163. doi:10.1007/s11858-019-01093-1.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A. & Tran, L. M. (2020). Performance differences on a measure of mathematics vocabulary for English Learners and non-English Learners with and without mathematics difficulty. *Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties*, *36*(2), 124–141. doi:10.1080/10573569.2019.1677538.

Powell, S. R., Doabler, C. T., Akinola, O., Therrien, W. J., Maddox, S. A. & Hess, K. E. (2020). A synthesis of elementary mathematics interventions: Comparisons of students with mathematics difficulty with and without comorbid reading difficulty. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *53*(4), 244–276. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219419881646.

Powell, S. R. & Fluhler, S. K. (2020). A brief measure of mathematics symbols: Performance at grades 1, 3, and 5. *Assessment for Effective Intervention*, *45*(5), 266–276. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508418809884.

Powell, S. R., Stevens, E. A. & Hughes, E. M. (2019). Math language in middle school: Be more specific. *Teaching Exceptional Children*, *51*(4), 286–295. doi:10.1177/0040059918808762.

Powell, S. R., Stevens, E. A. & Berry, K. A. (2019). Effects of a word-problem intervention on word-problem language features for third-grade students with mathematics difficulty. *Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal*, *24*(3), 1–14. doi:10.18666/LDMJ-2019-V24-I2-9835.

Powell, S. R., Fuchs, L. S. & Gilbert, J. K. (2019). Variables influencing algebra performance: Understanding rational numbers is essential. *Learning and Individual Differences*, *74*(101758). doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101758.

Hebert, M. A., Powell, S. R., Bohaty, J. J. & Roehling, J. (2019). Piloting a mathematics writing intervention with late elementary students at-risk for learning difficulties. *Learning Disabilities Research and Practice*, *34*(3), 144–157. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12202.

Stevens, E. A., Rodgers, M. A. & Powell, S. R. (2018). Intensive interventions in mathematics for upper elementary and secondary students: A meta-analysis of research. *Remedial and Special Education*, *39*(6), 327–340. doi:10.1177/0741932517731887.

Nelson, G. & Powell, S. R. (2018). A systematic review of longitudinal studies of mathematics difficulty. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *51*(6), 523–539. doi:10.1177/0022219417714773.

Nelson, G. & Powell, S. (2018). Computation error analysis: Students with mathematics difficulty compared to typically achieving students. *Assessment for Effective Intervention*, *43*, 144–156. doi:10.1177/1534508417745627.

Forysth, S. R. & Powell, S. R. (2017). Differences in the mathematics-vocabulary knowledge of fifth-grade students with and without learning difficulties. *Learning Disabilities Research and Practice*, *32*(4), 231–245. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12144.

Powell, S. R. & Nelson, G. (2017). An investigation of the mathematics-vocabulary knowledge of first-grade students. *The Elementary School Journal*, *117*(4), 664–686. doi:10.1086/691604.

Powell, S. R., Hebert, M. A., Cohen, J. A., Casa, T. M. & Firmender, J. M. (2017). A synthesis of mathematics writing: Assessments, interventions, and surveys. *Journal of Writing Research*, *8*(3), 493–526. doi:10.17239/jowr-2017.08.03.04.

Powell, S. R., Driver, M. K., Roberts, G. & Fall, A.-M. (2017). An analysis of the mathematics vocabulary knowledge of third- and fifth-grade students: Connections to general vocabulary and mathematics computation.. *Learning and Individual Differences*, *57*, 22–32. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2017.05.011.

Powell, S. R., Cirino, P. T. & Malone, A. S. (2017). Child-level predictors of responsiveness to evidence-based mathematics intervention. *Exceptional Children*, *83*(4), 359–377. doi:10.1177/0014402917690728.

Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A., Benz, S. A., Forsyth, S. R. & Martinez-Lincoln, A. (2017). Teaching students to understand and solve word problems. *Texas Mathematics Teacher*, *63*(2), 6–12.

King, S. A., Powell, S. R., Lemons, C. J. & Davidson, K. A. (2017). Comparison of mathematics performance of children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome. *Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities*, *52*(2), 208–222.

Driver, M. K.. & Powell, S. R.. (2017). Culturally and linguistically responsive schema intervention: Improving word-problem solving for English language learners with mathematics difficulty. *Learning Disability Quarterly*, *40*(1), 41–53. doi:10.1177/0731948716646730.

Hughes, E. M., Powell, S. R. & Stevens, E. A. (2016). Supporting clear and concise mathematics language: Instead of that, say this. *Teaching Exceptional Children*, *49*(1), 7–17. doi:10.1177/0040059916654901.

Stevens, E. A. & Powell, S. R. (2016). Unpacking word problems for diverse learners: A guide to using schemas. *Childhood Education*, *92*, 86–91. doi:10.1080/00094056.2016.1134253.

Hughes, E. M., Powell, S. R., Lembke, E. S. & Riley-Tillman, T. C. (2016). Taking the guesswork out of locating evidence-based practices for diverse learners. *Learning Disabilities Research and Practice*, *31*(3), 130141. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12103.

Hebert, M. A. & Powell, S. R. (2016). Examining fourth-grade mathematics writing: Features of organization, mathematics vocabulary, and mathematical representations. *Reading and Writing*, *29*(7), 15111537. doi:10.1007/s11145-016-9649-5.

Powell, S. R. & Nurnberger-Haag, J. (2015). Everybody counts, but usually just to 10! A systematic analysis of number representations in childrens books. *Early Education and Development*, *26*(3), 377–398. doi:10.1080/10409289.2015.994466.

Powell, S. R. & Driver, M. K. (2015). The influence of mathematics vocabulary instruction embedded within addition tutoring for first-grade students with mathematics difficulty. *Learning Disability Quarterly*, *38*(4), 221–233. doi:10.1177/0731948714564574.

Powell, S. R. (2015). The influence of symbols and equations on understanding mathematical equivalence. *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *50*(5), 266–272. doi:10.1177/0731948714564574.

Powell, S. R. (2015). Connecting evidence-based practice with implementation opportunities in special education mathematics preparation. *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *51*(2), 90–96. doi:10.1177/1053451215579269.

Powell, S. R., Driver, M. K. & Julian, T. E. (2015). The effect of tutoring with nonstandard equations on the mathematics performance of second-grade students with mathematics difficulty. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *48*(5), 523–534. doi:10.1177/0022219413512613.

Powell, S. R., Fuchs, L. S., Cirino, P. T., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L. & Changas, P. C.. (2015). Effects of a multi-tier support system on calculation, word-problem, and pre-algebraic learning among at-risk learners. *Exceptional Children*, *81*(4), 443–470. doi:10.1177/0014402914563702.

Powell, S. R. & Fuchs, L. S. (2015). Intensive intervention in mathematics. *Learning Disabilities Research and Practice*, *30*, 182192. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12087.

Lemons, C. J., Powell, S. R., King, S. A. & Davidson, K. (2015). Mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome: A research synthesis. *Journal of Intellectual Disability Research*, *59*(8), 767783. doi:10.1111/jir.12188.

Cirino, P. T., Fuchs, L. S., Elias, J., Powell, S. R. & Schumacher, R. F. (2015). Cognitive and mathematical profiles for different forms of learning disabilities. *Journal of Learning Disabilities*, *48*(2), 156175. doi:10.1177/0022219413494239.

Powell, S. R. & Stecker, P. M. (2014). Using data-based individualization to intensify mathematics intervention for students with disabilities. *Teaching Exceptional Children*, *46*(4), 31–37. doi:10.1177/0040059914523735.

Powell, S. R., Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (2013). Reaching the mountaintop: Addressing the Common Core Standards in mathematics for students with mathematics difficulties. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice*, *28*(1), 38–48. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12001.

Powell, S. R. (2012). Equations and the equal sign in elementary mathematics textbooks. *The Elementary School Journal*, *112*, 627–648. doi:10.1086/665009.

Powell, S. R. (2012). High-stakes testing for students with mathematics difficulty: Response format effects in mathematics problem solving. *Learning Disabilities Quarterly*, *35*(1), 3–9. doi:10.1177/0731948711428773.

Powell, S. (2011). Solving word problems using schemas: A review of the literature. *Learning Disabilities Research & Practice*, *26*(2), 94–108. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2011.00329.x.

Powell, S. R. & Fuchs, L. S. (2010). Contribution of equal-sign instruction beyond word-problem tutoring for third-grade students with mathematics difficulty. *Journal of Educational Psychology*, *102*(2), 381–394. doi:10.1037/a0018447.

Powell, S. R., Fuchs, L. S. & Fuchs, D. (2010). Embedding number combinations practice within word-problem tutoring. *Intervention in School and Clinic*, *46*(1), 22–30. doi:10.1177/1053451210369516.

**Pirate Math Equation Quest: Developing connections between word problems and mathematical equations to promote word-problem performance among students with mathematics difficulty**

Developed a Grades 3 word-problem intervention. Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences.

**More than $12 million in IES Grants to Support Research Benefiting Students and Educators**

**STAIR 2.0: Supporting teaching of algebra with individual readiness**

Support for middle school mathematics teachers of students with disabilities. Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences.

**SCALE: Scalability, capacity, and learning engagement for Fraction Face-Off to accelerating mathematics learning of students experiencing mathematics difficulty**

Replication of a fraction intervention at Grades 4-8. Funded by U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Education Innovation and Research (EIR), Mid-Phase Grant.

**Math SPIRAL: Specialized instruction to reach all learners**

Support for teachers in Grades 4 and 5 who provide mathematics intervention to students. Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences.

**LIME: Leaders investigating mathematics evidence**

Doctoral leadership grant funding 12 Ph.D. students focused on mathematics and special education. Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.

**TIER: Tiered interventions using evidence-based research**

State-wide support for Multi-Tiered Systems of Support. Funded by the Texas Education Agency.

**RAAMPS: The role of algebraic reasoning within additive and multiplicative multi-step problem solving for students with mathematics difficulty**

Developing a single- and multi-step word-problem intervention for students in Grade 4. Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences.

**Dean's Distinguished Research Award**, The University of Texas at Austin (2022)

**Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE)**, U.S. Government (2019)

**Distinguished Early Career Research Award**, Division for Research, Council for Exceptional Children (2018)

**Samuel A. Kirk Award, Best Practitioner Article**, Division for Learning Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (2016)

**Early Career Publication Award**, Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Research (2011)

**Dissertation Award**, Council for Exception Children, Division for Learning Disabilities (2010)

**Outstanding Researcher Award**, Council for Learning Disabilities (2009)

**Robert Gaylord-Ross Award for Excellence in Scholarly Writing**, Vanderbilt University, Department of Special Education (2009)

**Dick Shores Teacher Education Award**, Vanderbilt University, Department of Special Education (2009)

**Tessa Arsenault** *(Supervisor)*

**Zhina Shen** *(Supervisor)*

**Danielle O Lariviere** *(Supervisor)*

**Syeda Sharjina Akther** *(Supervisor)*

**Sarah G King** *(Supervisor)*

Sarah is a doctoral student primarily interested in improving outcomes for emergent bilingual students with or at-risk for mathematics learning disabilities.

**Alison Hardy** *(Supervisor)*

**Jessica Mao** *(Supervisor)*

**Xin Lin, Ph.D., 2022** *(Supervisor)*

The University of Texas at Austin

**Samantha Bos, Ph.D., 2022** *(Supervisor)*

The University of Texas at Austin

Year | Semester | Course |
---|---|---|

2023 | Spring | SED 378T: Tchg Math To Studnt Disabil |

2022 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2022 | Spring | SED 395D: Seminar Lrning Disab: Math |

2021 | Fall | SED 695SA: Professional Seminar |

2021 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2020 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2019 | Spring | SED 383: 11- Intrvntns: Math Disablts |

2018 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2018 | Spring | SED 383: 11- Intrvntns: Math Disablts |

2017 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2017 | Summer | SED f393: 5-Appld Rsch In Sed/Rehab Coun |

2017 | Spring | SED 395D: 3-Sem In Learning Disabilities |

2017 | Spring | SED 383: 11- Intrvntns: Math Disablts |

2016 | Fall | SED 383: 7-Assessment In Special Educ |

2016 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2016 | Spring | SED 383: 9-Instructional Adaptations II |

2015 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2015 | Spring | SED 383: 9-Instructional Adaptations II |

2014 | Fall | EDC 370E: 5-Mathematics-F |

2014 | Spring | SED 383: 9-Instructional Adaptations II |

Early Math Predicts Later Math: Implications for Intervention

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