Doris Luft Baker is an associate professor in the Department of Special Education and the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. Dr. Baker is engaged in developing and evaluating instructional tools and assessments in English and in Spanish designed to improve and monitor the academic performance of English learners with and without learning difficulties in reading, science, and social studies. Her research has been funded by agencies such as the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), the National Science Foundation (NSF), Southern Methodist University, the Oregon Child Development Coalition, and the Knight Foundation among others. In addition, through partnerships with community organizations such as the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Gardens, the Dallas Morning News, and Avance, Dr. Baker has explored the ways that Latinx families can develop the language proficiency of their children in Spanish and in English.
Currently, Dr. Baker is the principal investigator (PI) on an IES grant designed to develop a formative assessment to measure the vocabulary in science of second- and third-grade Latinx students using a speech recognition system and automated scoring (Project MELVA, 2020-2024). She is also a Co-Pi on a grant to replicate the effects of the Read Well program in first grade (Project IR2RW, 2020-2025). This was the only reading replication grant awarded by IES in 2020.
Dr. Baker's research has been published in Exceptional Children, Review of Research in Education (RRE), Bilingual Research Journal, Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Teaching Exceptional Children, Learning Disability Quarterly, Journal of School Psychology, and School Psychology Review (SPR), among others. Her review of bilingual education appeared in the RRE Centennial Volume in 2016. In 2018 she published the book: Second Language Acquisition: Methods, Perspectives, and Challenges, and in 2016 she published Bookshop Fonética, a curriculum program designed to teach phonics in Spanish to kindergarten and first-grade students in the U.S. In addition, Dr. Baker is the senior author of a formative assessment in Spanish for students in grades K-3: the Indicadores Dinámicos del Exito en la Lectura (IDEL 7th edition).
In 2019, she received a Fulbright award to conduct research in Chile in 2020. In 2019, she also received the Kirk Award for excellence in a research publication in Learning Disabilities, Research and Practice, a journal from the Council for Exceptional Children, and an award from the American Education Research Association Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning SIG group for her international collaboration with Finnish researchers. In 2014, Dr. Baker was awarded funds to travel to Finland to research the Finnish education system through a grant from the National Science Foundation. In 2012 she received an honorable mention for an article she published in SPR in 2011, and in 2008 she received the Distinguished Dissertation Award from the International Reading Association.
Prior to coming to UT Austin, Dr. Baker was the Co-Director of the Ph.D. program in the School of Education at Southern Methodist University, and the director of the Master in Bilingual Education. Dr. Baker received her Ph.D. in Educational Leadership from the University of Oregon. She holds an M.S. in Latin American Studies from San Diego State University and a B.S. in Psychology from the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City. Before starting her doctoral studies, Dr. Baker was a Spanish instructor at the University of Oregon where she taught all Spanish language courses. She received the Instructor of the Year award in 2002 for the development of an internship that built a connection between the University of Oregon and the Latino community. She has also provided professional development and consultation to parents, teachers, and researchers in the United States, and in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Spain, Finland, and Qatar. Dr. Baker was born in Brazil and grew up in Colombia and Mexico. She is fluent in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and semi-fluent in German. Below are three of Dr. Baker's recent publications.
Baker, D. L., Cummings, K., & S Smolkowski, K. (2022). Diagnostic accuracy of Spanish and English screeners with Spanish and English criterion measures for bilingual students in grades 1 and 2. Journal of School Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2022.04.001.
Baker, D. L., Park, Y., & Andress, TS. (2022). Longitudinal Predictors of Bilingual Language Proficiency, Decoding, and Oral Reading Fluency on Reading Comprehension in Spanish and in English, School Psychology Review. DOI: 10.1080/2372966X.2021.2021447
Baker, D. L., McCoach, B. D., Ware, S., Coyne, M. D., & Rattan, S. M. (2021). Effects of Spanish vocabulary knowledge on the English word knowledge and listening comprehension of bilingual students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.1908219
Ph.D. in Educational Leadership, University of Oregon, 2007
M.A. in History and Literature of the Americas, San Diego State University, 1988
B.S. in Psychology, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, 1985
Develops and evaluates interventions and assessments using technology to support the academic success of Latinx students and other students whose home language is not English.
Associate Professor/College of Education, Co-Chair of Search Committee for Assistant Professor in the Department of Special Education, (2022 - 2023)
Associate Professor/College of Education, Co-teaching of seminar for post-doctoral fellows, (2021 - 2023)
College of Education, Co-Chair of Search Committee for Associate/Full Professor in Education and Health Disparities, College of Education, UT Austin(2021 - 2022)
Co-Director of the PhD Program in the Simmons School of Education, PhD Program in the Simmons School of Education, Southern Methodist University(2019 - 2020)
Member, Research Council, Simmons School of Education, Southern Methodist University(2018 - 2020)
Member, Search Committee for the Department Chair in Policy and Leadership, Simmons School of Education, SMU., Simmons School of Education, Southern Methodist University(2018 - 2019)
Principal Member, Reviewer of grants for the Reading, Writing, and Language Development Program, Institute of Education Sciences(2018 - Present)
Member, PhD Program at the Simmons School of Education, Southern Methodist University(2015 - 2019)
Chair of the Master in Bilingual Education, Department of Teaching and Learning, Simmons School of Education, Southern Methodist University(2013 - 2019)
Baker, D L., Park, Y. & Andress, T. (2022). Longitudinal Predictors of Bilingual Language Proficiency, Decoding, and Oral Reading Fluency on Reading Comprehension in Spanish and in English.. School Psychology Review. doi:DOI: 10.1080/2372966X.2021.2021447.
Baker, D L., Cummings, K. & Smolkowski, K. (2022). Diagnostic accuracy of Spanish and English screeners with Spanish and English criterion measures for bilingual students in grades 1 and 2.. Journal of School Psychology, 92, 299–323. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2022.04.001.
Coyne, M., McCoach, B., Ware, S., Loftus-Rattan, S., Baker, D. L.., Santoro, L. & Oldham, A. (2022). Supporting vocabulary development withing a multitiered system of support: Evaluating the efficacy of a supplementary kindergarten vocabulary intervention.. Journal of Educational Psychology.. (View)
Coyne, M.., McCoach, B.., Loftus-Rattan, S.., Baker, D. L.. & Ware, S.. (2022). Long-term effects of kindergarten vocabulary instruction and intervention on target vocabulary knowledge through 2nd grade.. Topics in Language Disorders.
Baker, D. L.., Crespo, P.., Monzalve, M.., Garcia, I.. & Gutierrez, M.. (2022). Relation between the essential components of reading and reading comprehension in monolingual Spanish-speaking children:. Educational Psychology Review.. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-022-09694-1.
Cummings, K., Smolkowski, K. & Baker, D L. (2021). Comparison of literacy screener risk selection between English proficient students and English learners.. Learning Disability Quarterly, 44(2). doi:doi.org/10.1177/0731948719864408.
Baker, D. L.., Ma, H., Polanco, P., Conry, J., Kamata, A., Al Otaiba, S., Ward, W. & Cole, R. (2021). Development and Promise of a Vocabulary Intelligent Tutoring System for Second-Grade Latinx English Learners. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 53(2), 223–247. doi:DOI: 10.1080/15391523.2020.1762519.
Baker, D., McCoach, B.D., Ware, S., Coyne, M.D. & Rattan, S.M. (2021). Effects of Spanish vocabulary knowledge on the English word knowledge and listening comprehension of bilingual students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/YYVRQPMYIZCXR3EJ7Q6V/full?target=10.1080/13670050.2021.1908219. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.1908219.
Sano, M.., Baker, D. L.., Collazo, M.., Le, N.. & Kamata, A.. (2020). Measuring the expressive language and vocabulary of Latino English Learners using hand transcribed speech data and automated scoring.. International Journal of Intelligent Technologies and Applies Statistics, 13(3), 229–255. doi:https://doi:10.6148/IJITAS.202009_13(3).0003..
Baker, D. L., Santoro, L., Biancarosa, G., Baker, S. K., Fien, H. & Otterstedt, J. (2020). Effects of a Read Aloud Intervention on First Grade Student Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension, and Language Proficiency. Reading and Writing, An Interdisciplinary Journal. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-020-10060-2.
Conner, C., Baker, D. L. & Allor, J. (2020). Multiple language exposure for children with autism spectrum disorder from culturally and linguistically diverse communities. Bilingual Research Journal.
Baker, D. L., Azcarraga, M., Pomes, M. P., Smolkowski, K. & Lepe, N. (2019). Exploring the effects of an explicit Spanish vocabulary intervention to teach words in depth to second grade students in Chile. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 204–224. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2018.1523763..
Coyne, M., McCoach, D. B., Ware, S., Austin, C., Loftus, S. & Baker, D. L. (2019). Racing against the vocabulary gap: Matthew effects in early vocabulary instruction and intervention. Exceptional Children, 85(2), 163–179. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402918789162.
Baker, D. L., Ma, H. & Gallegos, E. (2019). Increasing parental knowledge through workshops on early childhood programs, home literacy, and technology use. Bilingual Research Journal, 42, 491–509. doi:https://doi:10.1080/15235882.2019.1666755.
Baker, D. L., Basaraba, D. & Richards-Tutor, C. (2018). Second Language Acquisition. Methods, Perspectives, and Challenges. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Polanco, P. & Baker, D. L. (2018). Transitional Bilingual Education and Two-Way Immersion Programs: Comparison of Reading Outcomes for English Learners in the United States. Athens Journal of Education. https://www.athensjournals.gr/education/2018-1-X-Y-Polanco.pdf.
Hautala, J., Baker, D. L., Keurulainen, A., Ronimus, M., Richardson, U. & Cole, R. (2018). Improving Early Science learning through Multimedia Explanations and Feedback on Spoken Questions with a Virtual Tutor. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-017-9558-6.
Baker, D. L., Richards-Tutor, C., Sparks, A. & Canges, R. (2018). Review of single subject research examining the effectiveness of interventions for at risk English learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 33(2), 64–74. doi:https://doi: 10.1111/ldrp.12160.
Baker, D. L., Basaraba, D., Smolkowski, K., Conry, J., Hautala, J., Richardson, U., English, S. & Cole, R. (2017). Exploring the cross-linguistic transfer of reading skills in Spanish to English in the context of a computer adaptive reading intervention. Bilingual Research Journal, 40(2), 222–239. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2017.1309719.
Baker, D. L., Basaraba, D. & Polanco, P. (2016). Connecting the present to the past: Furthering the research on bilingualism and bilingual education. Review of Research in Education, 40(1), 821–883. doi:https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X16660691.
Baker, D. L., Mogna, V., Rodriguez, S., Farmer, D. & Yovanoff, P. (2016). Building the oral language of young Hispanic Children through interactive read alouds and vocabulary games in preschool and at home. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 19(2), 81–94.
Baker, D. L., Burns, D., Kame'enui, E., Smolkowski, K. & Baker, S. K. (2015). Does small group explicit instruction support the transition from Spanish to English reading instruction for first grade English Learners at risk for reading difficulties?. Learning Disability Quarterly, 39(4), 226–239. doi:https://doi10.1177/0731948715616757.
Correa, V., Lo, Y., Godfrey-Hurrell, K., Swart, K. & Baker, D. L. (2015). Effects of adapted dialogic reading on oral language and vocabulary knowledge of Latino preschoolers at risk for English language delays. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 15(2), 3–21. doi:https://doi.org/10.5555/2158-396X.15.2.3.
Richards-Tutor, C., Baker, D. L., Gersten, R., Baker, S. K. & Smith, J. M. (2015). The effectiveness of reading interventions for English Learners: A research synthesis of studies published since 2000. Exceptional Children, 82(2), 144–169. doi:https://doi: 10.1177/00 I 4402915585483.
Baker, D. L., Santoro, L., Ware, S., Cuellar, D., Oldham, A., Cutticelli, M., Coyne, M., Loftus-Rathan, S. & McCoach, B. (2015). Understanding and Implementing the Common Core Vocabulary Standards in Kindergarten. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(5), 264–271. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059915580028.
Baker, D. L., Biancarosa, G., Park, B. J., Bousselot, T., Smith, J., Baker, S. K., Kame'enui, E., Alonzo, J. & Tindal, G. (2015). Validity of CBM measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension on high-stakes reading assessments in grades 7 and 8. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28(1), 57–104. doi:https://doi: 10.1007/s11145-014-9505-4.
Cena, J., Baker, D. L., Kame'enui, E. J., Baker, S. K., Park, Y. & Smolkowski, K. (2013). The impact of a systematic and explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish with Spanish-speak¬ing English learners in first grade. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 1289–1316. doi:https://doi 10.1007/s11145-012-9419-y.
MEasuring the Language and Vocabulary Acquisition in Science of Latinx Students Using Speech Recognition and Automated Scoring (Project MELVA-S for short) R305A170455.
The purpose of this grant is to develop an online formative assessment that measures the science vocabulary knowledge of Latinx bilingual students with different levels of English and Spanish language proficiencies in Grades 2 and 3. We will use speech recognition and automated scoring to score the measure and produce a preliminary report for teachers. Results of the assessment can be used to progress monitor students, help teachers differentiate language and vocabulary instruction in science, and provide additional science vocabulary supports. In this four-year grant, we will (a) develop the content of the assessment, (b) build the speech recognition system, and the automated scoring system, (c) develop a psychometric model that accurately estimates vocabulary item parameters and vocabulary abilities, and (d) conduct three validation studies.
The PI on the project is Dr. Doris Luft Baker. Co-Pis are: Dr. Akihito Kamata and Dr. Eric Larson from Southern Methodist University, and Dr. Catherine Richards-Tutor from California State University Long Beach.
Iterative Replication of Read Well in First Grade (Project IR2RW)
The goal of this project is to systematically replicate the Read Well program to determine its impact on first grade children with reading difficulties. Although a previous study indicated positive outcomes for letter names and sounds and word reading development in kindergarten, additional research will help determine whether Read Well also works in first grade, for whom it works, and under what conditions. The research team will examine these issues through a series of systematic replications that include students who are culturally and linguistically diverse and that attend urban, suburban, and rural elementary schools in Virginia, California, and Texas. This project was awarded to Emily Solari at the University of Virginia (UVA). Co-Pis are: Vivian Wong from UVA, Doris Luft Baker from UT, and Catherine Richards Tutor from California State University, Long Beach.
More than $12 million in IES Grants to Support Research Benefiting Students and Educators
English Learner Vocabulary Acquisition (ELVA): Promoting the Vocabulary and Language Proficiency of Spanish Speaking English Learners in Second Grade.
The purpose of this development and innovation project is to create a feasible and promising vocabulary intervention to increase vocabulary knowledge, text comprehension and language proficiency of Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in second grade using an intelligent tutoring system. ELVA is intended to provide teachers and students with highly effective and engaging tools that will increase ELs comprehension of science and social studies texts, and meet the vocabulary goals included in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) standards around science and language arts. ELVA features natural spoken dialogs with a lifelike virtual tutor in which students explain the concepts presented in texts. For a description of the project watch a video at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwcnWr9iUEs
Early Vocabulary Intervention.
The purpose of this project is to assess the efficacy of Early Vocabulary Intervention with kindergartners most at risk for language and learning disabilities. The intervention is designed to supplement classroom vocabulary instruction and intended to accelerate students' vocabulary and listening comprehension skills. Approximately 1,500 students most at risk for language and learning disabilities participated in this research. The Early Vocabulary Intervention is intended to be implemented within a tiered instruction approach. It supplements classroom instruction by reinforcing words introduced in whole class activities and providing more explicit instruction and opportunities to practice with immediate corrective feedback. Interventionists reintroduce students to words taught during classroom instruction and provide students with interactive activities to maximize exposure to words in multiple contexts. The intervention is provided to small groups outside the classroom for 20 minutes per day, 5 days per week, for 24 weeks.
Graphogame and MindStars Books: Global Cyber Tools for Improving Young Learner's Reading Comprehension, Scientific Discourse and STEM Learning
This international project represents a collaboration between Finnish researchers and US researchers. In the US we explored the promise of a computer game (GraphoLearn, previously called GraphoGame) developed by Finnish colleagues at the University of Jväskylä to increase the alphabetic understanding of bilingual children learning to read in Spanish and in English. Dr. Baker helped in the revision and adaptation of the game to a US setting, and she carried out an experimental study to examine the promise of the game to increase the decoding skills of Latin@ students in high poverty US schools (see Baker et al., 2017). In Finland, we tested a virtual tutoring system developed by Boulder Learning Inc. to teach science to first grade students. The tutoring system consisted of a sequence of narrative multimedia science presentations (MindStars Books) during which a virtual tutor explained science phenomena (e.g., What is an insect?), followed by multiple choice questions with immediate feedback. Results indicated a significant improvement in the science concepts taught versus the ones that were not taught (see Hautala, Baker, Keurulainen, Ronimus, Richardson, & Cole, 2018).
Reading Interventions with Spanish-Speaking Students: Maximizing Instructional Effectiveness in English and Spanish (SETR).
We investigated whether enhancing core reading instruction with Systematic and Explicit Teaching Routines improved the immediate and long term Spanish and English literacy achievement of English-language learners in first and second grade. Systematic and Explicit Teaching Routines are a set of developed and field-tested teaching templates that provide a framework for delivering explicit instruction in target reading areas and academic language. Systematic and Explicit Teaching Routines can be used to enhance any reading program. For the evaluation, the researchers randomly assigned schools to use the Systematic and Explicit Teaching Routines program or to continue their current instructional approach for Spanish-speaking English-language learners.
Hispanic Families Network Development and Evaluation Project
We explored the effects of workshops designed to increase directly the knowledge of Latinx parents, and indirectly, their childrens vocabulary knowledge. Thirty-two Latinx mothers were randomly
assigned to either attend six workshops in Spanish (n = 17), or to a wait-list control group (n = 15). Workshops included carefully designed strategies to scaffold the information based on parent English language proficiency, early childhood knowledge, and technology skills. Results indicated that mothers who attended the workshops significantly increased their early childhood knowledge. Children whose mothers attended the workshops significantly increased their Spanish expressive vocabulary. This project was funded by a grant from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation awarded to the Dallas Morning News.
Research Reboot, College of Education, UT Austin (2022 - 2022)
Dean's Leadership Fellow, College of Education, UT Austin (2022 - 2023)
Fulbright to Chile, Fulbright (2020 - 2020)
Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning award (TICL), American Education Research Association (2019)
Kirk award for excellence in a research publication in Learning Disabilities, Research and Practice, Division of Learning Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (2019)
Travel award to attend AERA in Toronto, Canada, SMU University Research Council (2019)
Sam Taylor Fellowship, Division of Higher Education, United Methodist General Board of Higher Education and Ministry. (2019)
Science Across Virtual Institutes (SAVI) Research and Travel Fund to Finland, National Science Foundation (2014)
2011 Article of the Year Honorable Mention, School Psychology Review (2011)
Distinguished Dissertation Award, International Reading Association (2008)
Instructor of the Year Award, Department of Romance Languages, University of Oregon (2001 - 2002)
Scholarship for outstanding academic performance, San Diego State University (1988)
Honorable Mention, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City (1985)
Teaching students of multicultural backgrounds in the US: An interdisciplinary approach., Chungnam National University, Department of Education, South Korea., Virtual (2021)
El Desarrollo lector de niños hispanohablantes monolingües: un meta-análisis, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile, Virtual (2021)
La evidencia empírica de la enseñanza explícita para desarrollar el lenguaje oral y la lectura en niños con problemas de aprendizaje [Empirical Evidence of Explicit Instruction to Develop the Oral Language and Reading Skills of Children with learning Diff, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile (2017)
Developing, Implementing, & Supervising Effective Instruction for English Learners., University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon (2016)
Developing, Implementing, & Supervising Effective Instruction for English Learners., University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon (2015)
How to Conduct Applied Research, Southern Methodist University, Department of Anthropology, Dallas, TX (2014)
Holland P Kowalkowski, Ph.D., expected 2024 (Co-supervisor)
Holly is interested in researching digital equity and how bilingual teachers, students, and communities use digital tools to critically engage with the world around them.
Laura D Turner, Ph.D., expected 2022 (Committee Member)
Translanguaging praxis and multilingual pedagogies; holistic bi/multilingual approaches to language and bi/multilingualism; transdisciplinary research methods
Yixian Huang (Supervisor)
Cinthia B Herrera (Supervisor)
Tim Andress (Committee Member)
My research interests include: a) interventions for children with and without disabilities, b)
reading and writing interventions for English Learners, c) bilingual education, and d) the effects
of bilingualism on executive functioning and academic performance.
|2023||Spring||SED 383: Biling Stdnts Strgglng Acdmcly|
|2022||Fall||EDC 370E: 20-Teach Eng As Sec Lang-F|
|2022||Spring||EDC 370E: 1-Reading-M|
|2021||Fall||EDC 370E: 20-Teach Eng As Sec Lang-F|
|2021||Spring||EDC 370E: 1-Reading-D|
Introducing New Faculty for the 2020-2021 Academic Year
Science of Teaching ReadingL the Podcast; S5-E4. What Bilingualism can teach us.
Joining host Susan Lambert, Dr. Doris Luft Baker speaks from her background researching the academic outcomes of English language learners to discuss ways educators can better engage and support all of their students. Dr. Baker emphasizes how much there is to learn about our native language by learning another language, and the many advantages of bilingualism. Dr. Baker oalso utlines how educators can include parents in their childrens language learning by teaching them how, when, and what to read to their kidsin their native language!
English Language Vocabulary Acquisition Project
English Learner Vocabulary Acquisition
This video describes how the English Language Vocabulary Acquisition system teaches English learners in second grade words in depth that they can use to explain natural science phenomena and relevant social studies concepts. The program uses an intelligent tutoring system to guide the instruction and provide prompts to support student language development and explanations. Content for the lessons is based on the Common Core State Standards for English language arts, Science, and Social Studies, and the Texas Education Knowledge and Skills standards. Through surveys, observations and interviews, we learned that students liked the ELVA system, and teachers thought it was a useful and feasible program to teach vocabulary relevant to science and social studies. Results from a randomized control trial suggested a significant effect on the words taught, and also promising effects on reading comprehension and standardized vocabulary measures for English learners attending bilingual and English only programs. We illustrate how ELVA was implemented in one of our partner schools that has a transitional bilingual program.
Funding Agency: Department of Education (ED)
Teaching Literacy Podcast: E18 Read Alouds Using a Structural Layering Approach with Dr. Doris Baker and Dr. Lana Santoro
Welcome to episode 18 of the teaching literacy podcast. Read alouds are a common practice in elementary classrooms, but do students benefit from this practice and how can teachers become better at implementing read alouds in their classroom?
My guests today have researched these and similar questions for over a decade. Their names are Dr. Doris Baker and Dr. Lana Santoro. In this episode we discuss a recent study they published in the journal Reading and Writing about at read aloud technique they completed with first graders. Dr. Baker is an Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin and Dr. Santoro is a Research Associate and Curriculum Developer with the Center on Teaching and Learning at the University of Oregon.